- Estonian pension system
- I pillar
- II pillar
- III pillar
The funded pension is based on preliminary financing – a working person himself or herself saves for his or her pension, paying 2% of the gross salary to the pension fund. The state adds 4% from the 33% social tax calculated on the salary of the employee.
If the 33% social tax is calculated from the salary of an employee who has not subscribed to the funded pension, 13% of it is directed to health insurance and 20% to state pension, which will be paid out to today’s pensioners. When subscribing to the funded pension, 4% of that state pension will be transferred to insure everyone’s personal future and that part will not be paid as state pension.
The state pension insurance component of the person who has subscribed to the funded pension, is also respectively smaller (for the years when 16% was received for state pension instead of 20%).
Subscribing to the funded pension is mandatory for the persons who were born in 1983 and later. The right and obligation to pay the contributions arises on 1 January of the year following the year when a person becomes 18 years old.
Persons who were born between the years 1942 and 1982 had the option to voluntarily subscribe to the funded pension system. The deadline for subscribing was 31 October 2010. With the submission of the application for subscribing, the persons took a binding obligation – there is no possibility to unsubscribe from the funded pension.
The right to receive funded pension payments becomes effective when a person reaches the retirement age.
An obligated person who is a sole proprietor can accrue the funded pension since the year 2004. For the sole proprietors, the period for the payment of the contributions is one calendar year.
If a sole proprietor has subscribed to the funded pension, the Tax Board will calculate the 2% contribution on the basis of their income tax declaration and issues a tax notice on the payable sum by no later than 1 September. The sole proprietors are obliged to transfer the payable sum to the bank account of the Tax Board by 1 October. The Tax Board will calculate an additional 4% from the 33% social tax from the business income, which is to be added to the contribution.